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The origins of the Marshall plan can be traced to the treaty of Versailles after WWI. Despite warnings from prominent economists such as John Maynard Keynes, the Allies made huge demands on Germany for reparations. The economic consequences were disastrous, and set the stage for WWII. Since then, this pattern has been noted in other, smaller conflicts: Economic hardship correlates with political strife. In contrast, the Marshall Plan was developed after WWII, which reinvested "repayments" for loans into aided countries. As a direct result, the GDP (or gross domestic product) of Europe was soon growing at a good 5% a year.